Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Rokers B, Fulvio JM, Pillow JW, Cooper EA

2018 Mar 1;18(3):23doi: 10.1167/18.3.23

People make surprising but reliable perceptual errors. Here, we provide a unified explanation for systematic errors in the perception of three-dimensional (3-D) motion. To do so, we characterized the binocular retinal motion signals produced by objects moving through arbitrary locations in 3-D. Next, we developed a Bayesian model, treating 3-D motion perception as optimal inference given sensory noise in the measurement of retinal motion. The model predicts a set of systematic perceptual errors, which depend on stimulus distance, contrast, and eccentricity. We then used a virtual-reality headset as well as a standard 3-D desktop stereoscopic display to test these predictions in a series of perceptual experiments. As predicted, we found evidence that errors in 3-D motion perception depend on the contrast, viewing distance, and eccentricity of a stimulus. These errors include a lateral bias in perceived motion direction and a surprising tendency to misreport approaching motion as receding and vice versa. In sum, we present a Bayesian model that provides a parsimonious account for a range of systematic misperceptions of motion in naturalistic environments.

J Vis|2018 Mar 1

Kirkland KB, Craig SR

2018 Apr 17;319(15):1532-1534doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.0396

JAMA|2018 Apr 17

Meisenhelter S, Jobst BC

2018 Apr 19;18(6):30doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0837-3

Memory is one of the top concerns of epilepsy patients, but there are no known treatments to directly alleviate the memory deficits associated with epilepsy. Neurostimulation may provide new therapeutic tools to enhance memory in epilepsy patients. Here, we critically review recent investigations of memory enhancement using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), chronic intracranial stimulation, and acute intracranial stimulation.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep|2018 Apr 19

Awwad HM, Ohlmann CH, Stoeckle M, Geisel J, Obeid R

2018 Apr 16;pii: S0009-9120(17)30904-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2018.04.011

Folate is required for synthesis of methyl groups and DNA in growing cells. The association between folate and prostate cancer (PCa) is not conclusive.

Clin Biochem|2018 Apr 16

Harrison JM, Lagisetty P, Sites BD, Guo C, Davis MA

2018 Apr 19;:e1-e3doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304349

To examine national trends in the use of various pharmacological pain medication classes by race/ethnicity among the US pain population.

Am J Public Health|2018 Apr 19

Fortuna KL, Storm M, Aschbrenner KA, Bartels SJ

2018 Apr 19;doi: 10.1007/s11126-018-9578-3

Description of certified peer specialists integration of peer philosophy into the delivery of a self-management intervention enhanced with mobile health. Qualitative examination of peer case notes that were routinely entered on a peer care management electronic dashboard. This study included consumers with serious mental illness (N = 8) with a mean age of 68.8 years (SD = 4.9). Certified peer specialists (N = 3) were all female and aged 55 years or older. Peers entered 146 case notes on the peer care management notes dashboard. Five themes emerged including encouragement of self-determination, bio-psychosocial-spiritual framework guides practice, sharing lived experience to teach self-management skills, personalized text messages to reinforce self-management skill development, and identifying unmet needs and advocating for human rights. Peers unique perspectives and expertise was complemented with the standardized delivery of evidence-based intervention enhanced with mobile health.

Psychiatr Q|2018 Apr 19

Singleton MN, Allen KF, Li Z, McNerney K, Naber UH, Braga MS

2018 Apr;4(2):77-82doi: 10.1136/bmjstel-2017-000243

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit Nurses (PICU RNs) manage the code cart during paediatric emergencies at the Children's Hospital at Dartmouth-Hitchcock. These are low -frequency, high-stakes events.

BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn|2018 Apr

Borgogna TR, Hisey B, Heitmann E, Obar JJ, Meissner N, Voyich JM

2018 Apr 13;doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy210

S. aureus is a predominant cause of fatal pneumonia following influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Herein we investigate the influence of antecedent IAV infection on S. aureus virulence gene expression. Using a murine model, comparing USA300 and USA300ΔsaeR/S strains, we demonstrate S. aureus pathogenesis following IAV infection is SaeR/S dependent. Furthermore, we show that IAV modulates the lung environment to rapidly up-regulate S. aureus virulence factors containing the SaeR-binding domain. Data demonstrate the pathogen response to IAV infection impacts host outcome and provides evidence that the ability of S. aureus to sense-and-respond to the lung environment determines severity of pneumonia.

J Infect Dis|2018 Apr 13

Meyer ML, Davachi L, Ochsner KN, Lieberman MD

2018 Apr 13;doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhy071

Brain regions engaged during social inference, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and tempoparietal junction (TPJ), are also known to spontaneously engage during rest. While this overlap is well known, the social cognitive function of engaging these regions during rest remains unclear. Building on past research suggesting that new information is committed to memory during rest, we explored whether one function of MPFC and TPJ engagement during rest may be to consolidate new social information. MPFC and TPJ regions significantly increased connectivity during rest after encoding new social information (relative to baseline and post nonsocial encoding rest periods). Moreover, greater connectivity between rTPJ and MPFC, as well as other portions of the default network (vMPFC, anterior temporal lobe, and middle temporal gyrus) during post social encoding rest corresponded with superior social recognition and social associative memory. The tendency to engage MPFC and TPJ during rest may tune people towards social learning.

Cereb Cortex|2018 Apr 13

Davies TE, Epstein G, Aguilera SE, Brooks CM, Cox M, Evans LS, Maxwell SM, Nenadovic M, Ban NC

2018;13(4):e0195760doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195760

Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users (demand trade-offs). We also found several divergent outcomes that were attributed to influences beyond the scope of the LMPA. We suggest that despite their size, trade-offs can develop in LMPAs and should be considered in planning and design. LMPAs may improve their performance across multiple social and ecological objectives if integrated with larger-scale conservation efforts.

PLoS One|2018


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