Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Ouayogodé MH, Meara E, Chang CH, Raymond SR, Bynum JPW, Lewis VA, Colla CH

2018 Jul 1;24(7):e207-e215

Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations, hold provider groups accountable for an assigned patient population, but little is known about unassigned patients. We compared clinical and utilization profiles of patients attributable to a provider group with those of patients not attributable to any provider group.

Am J Manag Care|2018 Jul 1

Khatiwada A, Shoaibi A, Neelon B, Emond JA, Benjamin-Neelon SE

2018 Jul 17;doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12395

Infancy is a critical period for obesity prevention. Emerging evidence links household chaos to poor health outcomes, yet its impact on obesity in infancy is unknown.

Pediatr Obes|2018 Jul 17

Aboumrad M, Shiner B, Riblet N, Mills PD, Watts BV

2018 Jul 18;doi: 10.1002/pon.4815

Vast efforts are directed toward curing or prolonging the life of patients with cancer. However, less attention is given to mental health aspects of cancer care, and there is elevated incidence of death by suicide in this population. Evaluating Root Cause Analyses (RCAs) of cancer-related suicides may further our understanding of system-level factors that may contribute to suicide in patients with cancer and highlight strategies to mitigate this risk.

Psychooncology|2018 Jul 18

Ricachenevsky FK, Punshon T, Lee S, Oliveira BHN, Trenz TS, Maraschin FDS, Hindt MN, Danku J, Salt DE, Fett JP, Guerinot ML

2018;9:865doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00865

Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are essential micronutrients required for proper development in both humans and plants. Rice ( L.) grains are the staple food for nearly half of the world's population, but a poor source of metals such as Fe and Zn. Populations that rely on milled cereals are especially prone to Fe and Zn deficiencies, the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in humans. Biofortification is a cost-effective solution for improvement of the nutritional quality of crops. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying grain accumulation of mineral nutrients is required before this approach can achieve its full potential. Characterization of gene function is more time-consuming in crops than in model species such as . Aiming to more quickly characterize rice genes related to metal homeostasis, we applied the concept of high throughput elemental profiling (ionomics) to Arabidopsis lines heterologously expressing rice cDNAs driven by the 35S promoter, named FOX (Full Length Over-eXpressor) lines. We screened lines expressing candidate genes that could be used in the development of biofortified grain. Among the most promising candidates, we identified two lines ovexpressing the metal cation transporter . expression in Arabidopsis resulted in a 25% increase in shoot Zn concentrations compared to non-transformed plants. We further characterized OsZIP7 and showed that it is localized to the plasma membrane and is able to complement Zn transport defective (but not Fe defective) yeast mutants. Interestingly, we showed that OsZIP7 does not transport Cd, which is commonly transported by ZIP proteins. Importantly, OsZIP7-expressing lines have increased Zn concentrations in their seeds. Our results indicate that OsZIP7 is a good candidate for developing Zn biofortified rice. Moreover, we showed the use of heterologous expression of genes from crops in as a fast method for characterization of crop genes related to the ionome and potentially useful in biofortification strategies.

Front Plant Sci|2018

Aanderud ZT, Saurey S, Ball BA, Wall DH, Barrett JE, Muscarella ME, Griffin NA, Virginia RA, Adams BJ

2018;9:1401doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01401

Imbalances in C:N:P supply ratios may cause bacterial resource limitations and constrain biogeochemical processes, but the importance of shifts in soil stoichiometry are complicated by the nearly limitless interactions between an immensely rich species pool and a multiple chemical resource forms. To more clearly identify the impact of soil C:N:P on bacteria, we evaluated the cumulative effects of single and coupled long-term nutrient additions (i.e., C as mannitol, N as equal concentrations NH and NO, and P as NaPO) and water on communities in an Antarctic polar desert, Taylor Valley. Untreated soils possessed relatively low bacterial diversity, simplified organic C sources due to the absence of plants, limited inorganic N, and excess soil P potentially attenuating links between C:N:P. After 6 years of adding resources, an alleviation of C and N colimitation allowed one rare Micrococcaceae, an species, to dominate, comprising 47% of the total community abundance and elevating soil respiration by 136% relative to untreated soils. The addition of N alone reduced C:N ratios, elevated bacterial richness and diversity, and allowed rare taxa relying on ammonium and nitrite for metabolism to become more abundant [e.g., nitrite oxidizing species (Nitrosomonadaceae), denitrifiers utilizing nitrite (Gemmatimonadaceae) and members of Rhodobacteraceae with a high affinity for ammonium]. Based on community co-occurrence networks, lower C:P ratios in soils following P and CP additions created more diffuse and less connected communities by disrupting 73% of species interactions and selecting for taxa potentially exploiting abundant P. Unlike amended nutrients, water additions alone elicited no lasting impact on communities. Our results suggest that as soils become nutrient rich a wide array of outcomes are possible from species dominance and the deconstruction of species interconnectedness to the maintenance of biodiversity.

Front Microbiol|2018

Koralek JD, Kim JB, Brůža P, Curry CB, Chen Z, Bechtel HA, Cordones AA, Sperling P, Toleikis S, Kern JF, Moeller SP, Glenzer SH, DePonte DP

2018 Jul 17;9(1):2860doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05365-4

The original version of this article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements:'P.B. was funded by the ELI Extreme Light Infrastructure Phase 2 (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15008/0000162) from the European Regional Development Fund and the EUCALL project funded from the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654220,' which replaces the previous 'P.B. was funded by the ELI Extreme Light Infrastructure Phase 2 (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15008/0000162) from the European Regional Development Fund.'This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the article.

Nat Commun|2018 Jul 17

Wormser GP, O'Connell S, Pachner AR, Schwartz I, Shapiro ED, Stanek G, Strle F

2018 Jun 18;pii: S0732-8893(18)30193-7. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.06.007

A critical analysis was conducted of a doxycycline treatment trial of Indian rhesus macaques. In this treatment trial, the investigators attempted to infect the primates with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by at least 10 tick bites from artificially infected ticks. None of the primates became ill; nevertheless, 5 primates were treated with a 28-day course of oral doxycycline. In contrast to the conclusions of the authors, the data did not convincingly document the existence of viable B. burgdorferi in antibiotic-treated primates. The investigators were unable to cultivate the spirochete from any animal after treatment using highly sensitive in vitro methods. Like many prior animal studies, the current study also did not document that the doxycycline exposure in these animals was similar to that expected in humans. Numerous additional methodologic problems are discussed.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis|2018 Jun 18

Aschbrenner KA, Bobak C, Schneider EJ, Naslund JA, Brunette MF, O'Malley AJ

2018 Jul 17;8(4):531-539doi: 10.1093/tbm/ibx014

Evidence-based smoking cessation treatment is safe and effective for smokers with serious mental illness (SMI); however, quit rates remain low in this population. We explored how social networks influence smoking outcomes among people with SMI who participated in smoking cessation treatment at community mental health centers. We conducted egocentric social network interviews with 41 individuals with SMI who participated in a statewide Medicaid demonstration project of smoking cessation treatment. We estimated the proportions of current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers in participants' (i.e., egos') networks and examined support for quitting from alters, defined as family, friends, peers, or significant others. We used logistic regression and mixed-effect logistic regression to explore the relationship between social network variables and ego's smoking status following cessation treatment. Egos reported an average of 5.9 ± 2.2 alters; 52% of alters were current smokers; 18% were former smokers; and 30% never smoked. The majority (57%) of alters helped an ego quit smoking. The presence of former smokers in the network was associated with decreased odds that the ego was smoking post-treatment. Egos whose friends were highly interconnected were less likely to smoke after treatment. Former smokers in the network may be a valuable resource for quitting particularly for vulnerable groups where there is a high prevalence and acceptability of smoking. Our initial findings suggest that a highly interconnected friendship network structure may be beneficial for people with SMI who are trying to quit smoking.

Transl Behav Med|2018 Jul 17

Austin SB, Rosario M, McLaughlin KA, Roberts AL, Sarda V, Yu K, Missmer S, Anatale-Tardiff L, Scherer EA

2018 Jul 10;97:78-85doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.07.006

Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of prejudice, discrimination, and violence victimization due to stigma associated with their sexual orientation. These stressors may contribute to physiological stress responses and changes in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To date, no studies have examined the associations among minority sexual orientation, recent stressful events, and diurnal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) patterns. The present study included 1663 young adults ages 18-32 years (31% men, 69% women) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over the course of one day to estimate diurnal sAA patterns. Sexual orientation groups included completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (CH; referent), mostly heterosexual/completely heterosexual with same-sex partners, and gay/lesbian/bisexual (LB or GB). Sex-stratified multilevel models were fit to evaluate the association of sexual orientation with diurnal patterns of log sAA. The association of recent stressful events was also evaluated. Among women, sexual minorities scored significantly higher than CH on perceived stress and number of stressful events in the past month (p < 0.05). Among men, sexual minorities scored higher than CH on perceived stress but not recent stressful events. In multivariable models, recent stressful events were not associated with sAA patterns, but significant sexual orientation group differences in sAA diurnal rhythm were observed among women though not among men. Compared to CH women, LB showed a blunted awakening response and elevated sAA levels across the day, both indicators consistent with SNS dysregulation. Findings suggest dysregulation of stress physiology in LB women, but not other sexual minority women or men, relative to same-sex heterosexuals. Observed dysregulation may relate to exposure among LB women to chronic stressors associated with sexual orientation stigma, although these relations and differences by sex warrant further study.

Psychoneuroendocrinology|2018 Jul 10

Koo K, Shee K, Gormley EA

2018 Jul 16;doi: 10.1007/s00345-018-2405-5

To examine patterns of crowdsourcing on the social media platform Twitter among urologists.

World J Urol|2018 Jul 16


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