Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Henderson ER, Titus AJ, Keeney BJ, Goodney PP, Lurie JD, Ibrahim SA

2018 May 18;doi: 10.1093/milmed/usy104

Decision quality measures the degree to which care decisions are knowledge-based and value-aligned. Because military service emphasizes hierarchy, command, and mandates some healthcare decisions, military service may attenuate patient autonomy in healthcare decisions and lower decision quality. VA is the nation's largest provider of orthopedic care. We compared decision quality in a sample of VA and non-VA patients seeking care for knee osteoarthritis.

Mil Med|2018 May 18

Tarver JE, Taylor RS, Puttick MN, Lloyd GT, Pett W, Fromm B, Schirrmeister BE, Pisani D, Peterson KJ, Donoghue PCJ

2018 May 18;doi: 10.1093/gbe/evy096

microRNAs are conserved non-coding regulatory factors implicated in diverse physiological and developmental processes in multicellular organisms, as causal macroevolutionary agents and for phylogeny inference. However, the conservation and phylogenetic utility of microRNAs has been questioned on evidence of pervasive loss. Here we show that apparent widespread losses are, largely, an artefact of poorly sampled and annotated microRNAomes. Using a curated dataset of animal microRNAomes, we reject the view that miRNA families are never lost, but they are rarely lost (92% are never lost). A small number of families account for a majority of losses (1.7% of families account for >45% losses), and losses are associated with lineages exhibiting phenotypic simplification. Phylogenetic analyses based on the presence/absence of microRNA families among animal lineages, and based on microRNA sequences among Osteichthyes, demonstrate the power of these small datasets in phylogenetic inference. Perceptions of widespread evolutionary losses of microRNA families are due to the uncritical use of public archives corrupted by spurious microRNA annotations, and failure to accommodate false absences that occur because of incomplete microRNAome annotation.

Genome Biol Evol|2018 May 18

Barriuso J, Hogan DA, Keshavarz T, Martínez MJ

2018 May 18;doi: 10.1093/femsre/fuy022

Microbial cells do not live in isolation in their environment, but rather they communicate with each other using chemical signals. This sophisticated mode of cell-to-cell signalling, known as quorum sensing, was first discovered in bacteria, and coordinates the behaviour of microbial population behaviour in a cell-density dependent manner. More recently, these mechanisms have been described in eukaryotes, particularly in fungi, where they regulate processes such as pathogenesis, morphological differentiation, secondary metabolite production and biofilm formation.In this manuscript, we review the information available to date on these processes in yeast, dimorphic fungi and filamentous fungi. We analyse the diverse chemical 'languages' used by different groups of fungi, their possible cross-talk and interkingdom interactions with other organisms. We discuss the existence of these mechanisms in multicellular organisms, the ecophysiological role of QS in fungal colonisation, and the potential applications of these mechanisms in biotechnology and pathogenesis.

FEMS Microbiol Rev|2018 May 18

Farashahi S, Rowe K, Aslami Z, Gobbini MI, Soltani A

2018;13(5):e0197263doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197263

Measurements of response time (RT) have long been used to infer neural processes underlying various cognitive functions such as working memory, attention, and decision making. However, it is currently unknown if RT is also informative about various stages of value-based choice, particularly how reward values are constructed. To investigate these questions, we analyzed the pattern of RT during a set of multi-dimensional learning and decision-making tasks that can prompt subjects to adopt different learning strategies. In our experiments, subjects could use reward feedback to directly learn reward values associated with possible choice options (object-based learning). Alternatively, they could learn reward values of options' features (e.g. color, shape) and combine these values to estimate reward values for individual options (feature-based learning). We found that RT was slower when the difference between subjects' estimates of reward probabilities for the two alternative objects on a given trial was smaller. Moreover, RT was overall faster when the preceding trial was rewarded or when the previously selected object was present. These effects, however, were mediated by an interaction between these factors such that subjects were faster when the previously selected object was present rather than absent but only after unrewarded trials. Finally, RT reflected the learning strategy (i.e. object-based or feature-based approach) adopted by the subject on a trial-by-trial basis, indicating an overall faster construction of reward value and/or value comparison during object-based learning. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the pattern of RT can be informative about how reward values are learned and constructed during complex value-based learning and decision making.

PLoS One|2018

Swarts SG, Sidabras JW, Grinberg O, Tipikin DS, Kmiec MM, Petryakov SV, Schreiber W, Wood VA, Williams BB, Flood AB, Swartz HM

2018 Jul;115(1):140-150doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000874

Instrumentation and application methodologies for rapidly and accurately estimating individual ionizing radiation dose are needed for on-site triage in a radiological/nuclear event. One such methodology is an in vivo X-band, electron paramagnetic resonance, physically based dosimetry method to directly measure the radiation-induced signal in fingernails. The primary components under development are key instrument features, such as resonators with unique geometries that allow for large sampling volumes but limit radiation-induced signal measurements to the nail plate, and methodological approaches for addressing interfering signals in the nail and for calibrating dose from radiation-induced signal measurements. One resonator development highlighted here is a surface resonator array designed to reduce signal detection losses due to the soft tissues underlying the nail plate. Several surface resonator array geometries, along with ergonomic features to stabilize fingernail placement, have been tested in tissue-equivalent nail models and in vivo nail measurements of healthy volunteers using simulated radiation-induced signals in their fingernails. These studies demonstrated radiation-induced signal detection sensitivities and quantitation limits approaching the clinically relevant range of ≤ 10 Gy. Studies of the capabilities of the current instrument suggest that a reduction in the variability in radiation-induced signal measurements can be obtained with refinements to the surface resonator array and ergonomic features of the human interface to the instrument. Additional studies are required before the quantitative limits of the assay can be determined for triage decisions in a field application of dosimetry. These include expanded in vivo nail studies and associated ex vivo nail studies to provide informed approaches to accommodate for a potential interfering native signal in the nails when calculating the radiation-induced signal from the nail plate spectral measurements and to provide a method for calibrating dose estimates from the radiation-induced signal measurements based on quantifying experiments in patients undergoing total-body irradiation or total-skin electron therapy.

Health Phys|2018 Jul

Wu YC, Mustafi SM, Harezlak J, Kodiweera C, Flashman LA, McAllister T

2018 May 22;doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5566

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an important public health problem. Although conventional medical imaging techniques can detect moderate-to-severe injuries, they are relatively insensitive to mTBI. In this study, we used hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) to detect white-matter alterations in nineteen patients with mTBI and 23 other trauma-control patients. Within 15 days (SD=10) of brain injury, all subjects underwent magnetic-resonance HYDI and were assessed with battery of neuropsychological tests of sustained attention, memory, and executive function. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used for voxelwise statistical analyses within the white-matter skeleton to study between-group differences in diffusion metrics, within-group correlations between diffusion metrics and clinical outcomes, and between group interaction effects. The advanced diffusion imaging techniques including neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) and q-space analyses appeared to be more sensitive then classic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Only NODDI-derived intra-axonal volume fraction (Vic) demonstrated significant group differences (i.e., 5% to 9% lower in the injured brain). Within the mTBI group, Vic and a q-space measure, P0, correlated with 6 of 10 neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, memory, and executive function. In addition, the direction of correlations differed significantly between the groups (R2 > 0.71 and Pinteration < 0.03). Specifically, in the control group, higher Vic and P0 were associated with better performances on clinical assessments, whereas in the mTBI group, higher Vic and P0 were associated with worse performances with correlation coefficients > 0.83. In summary, the NODDI-derived axonal density index and q-space measure for tissue restriction demonstrated superior sensitivity to white-matter changes shortly after mTBI. These techniques hold promise as a neuroimaging biomarker for mTBI.

J Neurotrauma|2018 May 22

O'Malley AJ, Wong SL

2018 May 21;doi: 10.1245/s10434-018-6536-0

Ann Surg Oncol|2018 May 21

Anderson JC, Levine JB

2018 May 18;doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001051

J Clin Gastroenterol|2018 May 18

Dodick DW, Tepper SJ, Friedman DI, Gelfand AA, Kellerman DJ, Schmidt PC

2018 May 21;doi: 10.1111/head.13327

To better understand the utility of using pain freedom and most bothersome headache-associated symptom (MBS) freedom as co-primary endpoints in clinical trials of acute migraine interventions.

Headache|2018 May 21

Pimental PA, Randolph JJ

2018 Jul-Aug;25(4):285-286doi: 10.1080/23279095.2018.1458509

Appl Neuropsychol Adult|2018 Jul-Aug


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