Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Goodman DC, Wasserman JR, Mowitz ME, Gilbert J, Stukel TA, Ganduglia-Cazaban C

2021 Apr 30;pii: S0022-3476(21)00409-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.04.058

To test the hypothesis that newborn infants cared for in hospitals with greater utilization of neonatal intensive care experienced fewer post-discharge adverse events.

J Pediatr|2021 Apr 30

Muhimpundu MA, Ngabo F, Sayinzoga F, Balinda JP, Rusine J, Harward S, Eagan A, Krivacsy S, Bayingana A, Uwimbabazi JC, Makuza JD, Ngirabega JD, Binagwaho A

2021 Apr;7:632-638doi: 10.1200/GO.20.00147

To describe the first year results of Rwanda's Screen, Notify, See, and Treat cervical cancer screening program, including challenges encountered and revisions made to improve service delivery.

JCO Glob Oncol|2021 Apr

Vermilyea DM, Crocker AW, Gifford AH, Hogan DA

2021 Apr 29;pii: JB.00100-21. doi: 10.1128/JB.00100-21

induces pathways indicative of low zinc availability in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung environment. To learn more about zinc access in CF, we grew strain PAO1 directly in expectorated CF sputum. The Zur transcriptional repressor controls the response to low intracellular zinc, and we used the NanoString methodology to monitor levels of Zur-regulated transcripts including those encoding a zincophore system, a zinc importer, and paralogs of zinc containing proteins that do not require zinc for activity. Zur-controlled transcripts were induced in sputum-grown compared to control cultures, but not if the sputum was amended with zinc. Amendment of sputum with ferrous iron did not reduce expression of Zur-regulated genes. A reporter fusion to a Zur-regulated promoter had variable activity in grown in sputum from different donors, and this variation inversely correlated with sputum zinc concentrations. Recombinant human calprotectin (CP), a divalent-metal binding protein released by neutrophils, was sufficient to induce a zinc-starvation response in grown in laboratory medium or zinc-amended CF sputum indicating that CP is functional in the sputum environment. Zinc metalloproteases comprise a large fraction of secreted zinc-binding proteins. Here we show that recombinant CP inhibited both LasB-mediated casein degradation and LasA-mediated lysis of , which was reversible with added zinc. These studies reveal the potential for CP-mediated zinc chelation to post-translationally inhibit zinc metalloprotease activity and thereby impact the protease-dependent physiology and/or virulence of in the CF lung environment.The factors that contribute to worse outcomes in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic infections are not well understood. Therefore, there is a need to understand environmental factors within the CF airway that contribute to colonization and infection. We demonstrate that growing bacteria in CF sputum induces a zinc-starvation response that inversely correlates with sputum zinc levels. Additionally, both calprotectin and a chemical zinc chelator inhibit the proteolytic activities of LasA and LasB proteases suggesting that extracellular zinc chelators can influence proteolytic activity and thus virulence and nutrient acquisition .

J Bacteriol|2021 Apr 29

Sarpatwari A, Mitra-Majumdar M, Bykov K, Avorn J, Woloshin S, Toyserkani GA, LaCivita C, Manzo C, Zhou EH, Pinnow E, Dal Pan GJ, Gagne JJ, Huybrechts KF, Feldman WB, Chin K, Kesselheim AS

2021 Apr 27;doi: 10.1007/s40264-021-01070-2

Since 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration has had the authority to require risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) programs for certain medications with serious safety concerns to help ensure the benefits of the medication outweigh its risks. Such programs can include requirements for patient monitoring, restrictions on dispensing or administration, and physician and pharmacy training and certification. However, there has been only scattered evidence on the impact of REMS programs on informed decision making, medication access, or patient outcomes.

Drug Saf|2021 Apr 27

Durand MA, Scalia P, Elwyn G

2021 Apr 26;pii: bmjebm-2021-111695. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2021-111695

BMJ Evid Based Med|2021 Apr 26

Barnato AE, Khayal IS

2021 May;8(5):e376-e381doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00099-5

Three palliative care clinical trials were presented at the 2020 American Society for Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting. The heterogeneity in populations, models of care, study design, and assessment of clinical outcomes across these three studies show the broad opportunities for research into interventions for palliative care. In this Viewpoint, we summarise the characteristics of these studies, discuss their novel features and lingering questions, and offer a suggestion for further expanding the focus of clinical trials for delivery of palliative care in the future. We particularly argue that the propensity to characterise palliative care as if it was a clinical or biomedical intervention hampers the design and evaluation of complex clinical interventions that influence clinicians, systems for health-care delivery, individual patients, and their families.

Lancet Haematol|2021 May

Levy DE, Pachucki MC, O'Malley AJ, Porneala B, Yaqubi A, Thorndike AN

2021 Apr 22;doi: 10.1038/s41562-021-01103-x

Unhealthy food choice is an important driver of obesity, but research examining the relationship of food choices and social influence has been limited. We sought to assess associations in the healthfulness of workplace food choices among a large population of diverse employees whose food-related social connections were identified using passively collected data in a validated model. Data were drawn from 3 million encounters where pairs of employees made purchases together in 2015-2016. The healthfulness of food items was defined by 'traffic light' labels. Cross-sectional simultaneously autoregressive models revealed that proportions of both healthy and unhealthy items purchased were positively associated between connected employees. Longitudinal generalized estimating equation models also found positive associations between an employee's current food purchase and the most recent previous food purchase a coworker made together with the employee. These data indicate that workplace interventions to promote healthy eating and reduce obesity should test peer-based strategies.

Nat Hum Behav|2021 Apr 22

McLaren JL, Lichtenstein JD, Metcalfe JD, Charlot LR, Drake RE, Beasley JB

2021 Apr 22;:appips201900465doi: 10.1176/

The authors examined the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic medication prescribing among outpatient youths with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Psychiatr Serv|2021 Apr 22

Leech MM, Briggs A, Loehrer AP

2021 Apr 16;265:27-32doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2021.02.050

At any given time, almost 2 million individuals are in prisons or jails in the United States. Incarceration status has been associated with disproportionate rates of cancer and infectious diseases. However, little is known about the burden emergency general surgery (EGS) in criminal justice involved (CJI) populations.

J Surg Res|2021 Apr 16

Gifford AH, Sanville JL, Sathe M, Heltshe SL, Goss CH

2021 Apr 16;doi: 10.1002/ppul.25431

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are commonly prescribed to people with cystic fibrosis (PwCF) to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or protect pancreatic enzymes from degradation in the stomach. Acid suppressive medications (ASMs) could theoretically reduce hemoglobin (Hgb) levels by restricting enteral iron absorption, but evidence of an association between use of ASMs and lower Hgb levels is lacking in PwCF.

Pediatr Pulmonol|2021 Apr 16


Get the latest updates on applying to Dartmouth