Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Meier A, Moore SK, Saunders EC, McLeman B, Metcalf SA, Auty S, Walsh O, Marsch LA

2020 Feb 7;209:107893doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107893

New Hampshire (NH) has had among the highest rates of fentanyl-related overdose deaths per capita in the United States for several years in a row-more than three times the national average in 2016. This mixed-methods study investigated drug-using practices and perspectives of NH residents who use opioids to inform policy in tackling the overdose crisis.

Drug Alcohol Depend|2020 Feb 7

Kaltenbach T, Anderson JC, Burke CA, Dominitz JA, Gupta S, Lieberman D, Robertson DJ, Shaukat A, Syngal S, Rex DK

2020 Feb 12;pii: S0016-5085(20)30220-1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.015

Gastroenterology|2020 Feb 12

Ramkumar N, Suckow BD, Arya S, Sedrakyan A, Mackenzie TA, Goodney PP, Brown JR

2020 Feb 5;3(2):e1921240doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.21240

Sex-based differences exist in the prevalence and clinical presentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, it is unclear if sex is associated with AAA repair type and long-term mortality.

JAMA Netw Open|2020 Feb 5

El Bizri I, Batsis JA

2020 Feb 14;:1-9doi: 10.1017/S0029665120000075

Recognising the adverse outcomes that occur to obese adults over the age of 65 years with loss of muscle mass or strength, or sarcopenia is important. We will review the definitions of sarcopenic obesity, and attempt to link the epidemiological data with the molecular pathways. Upon understanding the model of sarcopenic obesity, we will discuss targeted interventions and further challenges to address this geriatric syndrome. As our understanding of this syndrome is growing, more data are emerging to help define sarcopenic obesity across different populations. We now have a better understanding of biological pathways in ageing such as changes in body composition, sex-specific hormones, pro-inflammatory markers and myocellular mechanisms. We will review a comprehensive model that shows the interactions between the different pathways leading to sarcopenic obesity. Such a model will explain the promising interventions in place and invite future ones. Sarcopenic obesity is an important geriatric syndrome with significant clinical and healthcare implications. Further research is needed to harmonise definitions, clarify mechanisms contributing to syndrome and use evidence-based interventions to target biological mechanisms in both research and clinical settings.

Proc Nutr Soc|2020 Feb 14

Adams LV, Maseko TSB, Talbot EA, Grande SW, Mkhontfo MM, Simelane ZZ, Achilla AA, Haumba SM

2019 Dec 21;9(4):153-158doi: 10.5588/pha.19.0038

Five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care facilities in Eswatini.

Public Health Action|2019 Dec 21

Levin SR, Farber A, Goodney PP, Schermerhorn ML, Patel VI, Arinze N, Cheng TW, Jones DW, Rybin D, Siracuse JJ

2020 Feb 5;pii: S0741-5214(19)32892-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.047

Whether recent stroke mandates planned shunting during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is controversial. Our goal was to determine associations of various shunting practices with postoperative outcomes of CEAs performed after acute stroke.

J Vasc Surg|2020 Feb 5

Rak KJ, Ashcraft LE, Kuza CC, Fleck JC, DePaoli LC, Angus DC, Barnato AE, Castle NG, Hershey TB, Kahn JM

2020 Feb 5;doi: 10.1164/rccm.201910-2006OC

Patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation experience low survival rates and incur high health care costs. However, little is known about how to optimally organize and manage their care.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med|2020 Feb 5

Murray GF, Rodriguez HP, Lewis VA

2020 Feb;39(2):199-206doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01266

Despite interest in addressing social determinants of health to improve patient outcomes, little progress has been made in integrating social services with medical care. We aimed to understand how health care providers with strong motivation (for example, operating under new payment models) and commitment (for example, early adopters) fared at addressing patients' social needs. We collected qualitative data from twenty-two accountable care organizations (ACOs). These ACOs were early adopters and were working on initiatives to address social needs, including such common needs as transportation, housing, and food. However, even these ACOs faced significant difficulties in integrating social services with medical care. First, the ACOs were frequently "flying blind," lacking data on both their patients' social needs and the capabilities of potential community partners. Additionally, partnerships between ACOs and community-based organizations were critical but were only in the early stages of development. Innovation was constrained by ACOs' difficulties in determining how best to approach return on investment, given shorter funding cycles and longer time horizons to see returns on social determinants investments. Policies that could facilitate the integration of social determinants include providing sustainable funding, implementing local and regional networking initiatives to facilitate partnership development, and developing standardized data on community-based organizations' services and quality to aid providers that seek partners.

Health Aff (Millwood)|2020 Feb

Quon RJ, Mazanec MT, Schmidt SS, Andrew AS, Roth RM, MacKenzie TA, Sajatovic M, Spruill T, Jobst BC

2020 Jan 29;104(Pt A):106906doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.106906

Cognitive impairment is one of the most common complaints for persons with epilepsy (PWE). These impairments are not only associated with seizures, but are also regularly reported as adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Previous studies have examined cognitive effects of both AED monotherapy and polytherapy, yet there is limited research on these differences with respect to both subjective and objective cognition. The current study uses data from previous research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network collaborative. We used three distinct archival datasets from the following: (1) the HOBSCOTCH efficacy trial at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (HOB-1), (2) the multisite replication trial (HOB-2), and (3) epilepsy self-management research conducted at the NYU School of Medicine.

Epilepsy Behav|2020 Jan 29

Buist DSM, Ichikawa L, Wernli KJ, Lee CI, Henderson LM, Kerlikowske K, Bowles EJA, Miglioretti DL, Specht J, Rauscher G, Sprague B, Onega T, Lee JM

2020 Jan 28;pii: S1546-1440(19)31483-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2019.12.020

We sought to identify and characterize examinations in women with a personal history of breast cancer likely performed for asymptomatic surveillance.

J Am Coll Radiol|2020 Jan 28


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