Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Ralston SL

2018 Oct 16;320(15):1537-1538doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.14435

JAMA|2018 Oct 16

Knutzen KE, Moran MB, Soneji S

2018 Oct 15;doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4488

Hip-hop is the leading music genre in the United States and its fan base includes a large proportion of adolescents and young adults of all racial and ethnic groups, particularly minorities. The appearance of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products, especially brand placement and use by popular and influential artists, may increase the risk of tobacco and marijuana use and decrease perceptions of harm.

JAMA Intern Med|2018 Oct 15

Abu-El-Haija M, Gukovskaya AS, Andersen DK, Gardner TB, Hegyi P, Pandol SJ, Papachristou GI, Saluja AK, Singh VK, Uc A, Wu BU

2018 Nov Dec;47(10):1185-1192doi: 10.1097/MPA.0000000000001175

A workshop was sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to focus on research gaps and opportunities on drug development for pancreatitis. This conference was held on July 25, 2018, and structured into 3 working groups (WG): acute pancreatitis (AP) WG, recurrent AP WG, and chronic pancreatitis WG. This article reports the outcome of the work accomplished by the AP WG to provide the natural history, epidemiology, and current management of AP; inform about the role of preclinical models in therapy selection; and discuss clinical trial designs with clinical and patient-reported outcomes to test new therapies.

Pancreas|2018 Nov/Dec

Robbins NM

2018 Oct;38(5):589-598doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1668081

A conflict of interest (COI) exists when a physician's professional responsibilities are compromised by personal or financial relationships. COIs between physicians and the pharmaceutical or medical device industry (Industry) are common. Collaborations with Industry have many potential benefits, but also raise potential ethical pitfalls. Industry-related COIs have widespread influence on medical education, research, and clinical practice, and therefore have profound implications for the integrity of the field of medicine. Full disclosure is an important step toward mitigating COI but does not redress subconscious accompanying biases. I review the spectrum of potential COI faced by physicians, with a focus on the ethics surrounding the relationship between neurologists and Industry. Other financial and nonfinancial COIs that influence neurologists and nonindividual entities, such as academic institutions, medical journals, and professional societies, are also discussed. Solutions ranging from disclosure to avoidance and recusal are briefly considered.

Semin Neurol|2018 Oct

Lewis A, Bernat JL

2018 Oct;38(5):495-496doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1673410

Semin Neurol|2018 Oct

Divakaruni SS, Van Dyke AM, Chandra R, LeGates TA, Contreras M, Dharmasri PA, Higgs HN, Lobo MK, Thompson SM, Blanpied TA

2018 Oct 9;pii: S0896-6273(18)30827-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.09.025

Synaptic transmission is bioenergetically demanding, and the diverse processes underlying synaptic plasticity elevate these demands. Therefore, mitochondrial functions, including ATP synthesis and Ca handling, are likely essential for plasticity. Although axonal mitochondria have been extensively analyzed, LTP is predominantly induced postsynaptically, where mitochondria are understudied. Additionally, though mitochondrial fission is essential for their function, signaling pathways that regulate fission in neurons remain poorly understood. We found that NMDAR-dependent LTP induction prompted a rapid burst of dendritic mitochondrial fission and elevations of mitochondrial matrix Ca. The fission burst was triggered by cytosolic Ca elevation and required CaMKII, actin, and Drp1, as well as dynamin 2. Preventing fission impaired mitochondrial matrix Ca elevations, structural LTP in cultured neurons, and electrophysiological LTP in hippocampal slices. These data illustrate a novel pathway whereby synaptic activity controls mitochondrial fission and show that dynamic control of fission regulates plasticity induction, perhaps by modulating mitochondrial Ca handling.

Neuron|2018 Oct 9

Aschbrenner KA, Naslund JA, Gorin AA, Mueser KT, Scherer EA, Viron M, Kinney A, Bartels SJ

2018 Oct 11;pii: S1551-7144(18)30454-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2018.10.005

Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder face a higher risk of early death due to cardiovascular disease and other preventable chronic illnesses. Young adulthood is a critical window of development for lifestyle interventions to improve the long-term health and quality of life in this population. Fit Forward is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a group lifestyle intervention (PeerFIT) enhanced with mobile health technology compared to one-on-one mobile lifestyle coaching with Basic Education in fitness and nutrition supported by a wearable Activity Tracking device (BEAT) in achieving clinically significant weight loss and improved cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults with SMI.

Contemp Clin Trials|2018 Oct 11

Six KR, Delabie W, Devreese KMJ, Johnson L, Marks DC, Dumont LJ, Compernolle V, Feys HB

2018 Oct 12;doi: 10.1111/trf.14828

Transfusion of cryopreserved platelets (cryoplatelets) is not common but may replace standard liquid-preserved platelets (PLTs) in specific circumstances. To better understand cryoplatelet function, frozen concentrates from different manufacturing sites were compared.

Transfusion|2018 Oct 12

Magohe A, Mackenzie T, Kimario J, Lukmanji Z, Hendricks K, Koethe J, Neke NM, Tvaroha S, Connor R, Waddell R, Maro I, Matee M, Pallangyo K, Bakari M, von Reyn CF, DarDar-2 Study Team.

2018;13(10):e0201038doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201038

To determine if a protein-calorie supplement (PCS) plus a micronutrient supplement (MNS) improves outcomes for HIV-infected lactating women and their infants.

PLoS One|2018

Borggrewe M, Grit C, Den Dunnen WFA, Burm SM, Bajramovic JJ, Noelle RJ, Eggen BJL, Laman JD

2018 Oct 11;doi: 10.1002/glia.23517

V-type immunoglobulin domain-containing suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) involved in inhibition of T cell-mediated immunity. Expression changes of other NCRs (PD-1, PD-L1/L2, CTLA-4) during inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) were previously demonstrated, but VISTA expression in the CNS has not yet been explored. Here, we report that in the human and mouse CNS, VISTA is most abundantly expressed by microglia, and to lower levels by endothelial cells. Upon TLR stimulation, VISTA expression was reduced in primary neonatal mouse and adult rhesus macaque microglia in vitro. In mice, microglial VISTA expression was reduced after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and in the accelerated aging Ercc1 mouse model. After LPS injection, decreased VISTA expression in mouse microglia was accompanied by decreased acetylation of lysine residue 27 in histone 3 in both its promoter and enhancer region. ATAC-sequencing indicated a potential regulation of VISTA expression by Pu.1 and Mafb, two transcription factors crucial for microglia function. Finally, our data suggested that VISTA expression was decreased in microglia in multiple sclerosis lesion tissue, whereas it was increased in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study is the first to demonstrate that in the CNS, VISTA is expressed by microglia, and that VISTA is differentially expressed in CNS pathologies.

Glia|2018 Oct 11


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